STDs are infections that are passed from one person to another during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
They also spread by blood ,its products and body secretions. They're really common, and lots of people who have them don't have any symptoms.
WHAT IS HPV?
The human papillomavirus (HPV) that causes genital warts can be transmitted by close skin-to-skin contact. HPV infection can occur in people who have no symptoms or visible warts. It's the most common sexually transmitted infection. HPV is usually harmless and goes away by itself, but some types can lead to cancer or genital warts.
WHAT ARE HPV Symptoms?
Genital warts can be big or small, flat or raised. They generally appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital region, and may be shaped like a cauliflower.
The most common STD-HPV?
There are more than 100 types of human papillomavirus (HPV). About 40 kinds can infect your genital area - your vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis, and scrotum - as well as your mouth and throat. These kinds of HPV are spread during sexual contact.
IS THERE A CURE?
There's no cure for HPV. But there's a lot you can do to keep HPV from having a negative impact on your health. There are vaccines that can help protect you from ever getting certain types of HPV. Genital warts can be removed by your doctor. High-risk HPV can usually be easily treated before it turns into cancer, which is why regular Pap/HPV tests are so important. While condoms don't offer perfect protection, they can help lower your chances of getting HPV
How do you get HPV?
HPV is easily spread from sexual skin-to-skin contact with someone who has it. You get it when your vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, or anus touches someone else's genitals or mouth and throat - usually during sex. HPV can be spread even if a penis doesn't go inside the vagina/anus/mouth.
HPV is the most common STD, but most of the time it isn't a big deal. It usually goes away on its own, and most people don't even know that they ever had HPV. Remember that most people who have sex get HPV at some point in their lives. You don't need to be ashamed or AFRAID
If I have high-risk HPV, will I get cancer?
High-risk HPV can cause normal cells to become abnormal. These abnormal cells can lead to cancer over time. High can cause cancer in the CERVIX ,vagina, vulva, anus, penis, mouth, and throat.
The good news is most people recover from HPV infections with no health problems at all.
Smoking cigarettes also makes HPV more likely to cause cervical cancer.
There's no cure for HPV, but it usually takes several years for cancer to develop, and abnormal cells in the cervix can be detected and treated before they turn into cancer.
Just make sure you're not skipping your regular checkups, including Pap and/or HPV tests.
What is pap test?
Pap tests, sometimes called Pap smears, are very important tests for finding abnormal cells on your cervix, generally caused by HPV. Pap tests find cell changes that are likely caused by HPV, but they don't detect HPV itself.
The Pap test checks for cervical cancer. Cells scraped from the opening of the cervix are examined under a microscope. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina
What is HPV testing?
There's also an HPV test that can find some high-risk types of the virus directly, but it's only used in certain situations doctor may recommend the HPV test
for women 25 and older instead of a Pap test
for women 30-65, along with a Pap test
as a follow-up to a Pap test that finds abnormal cells or when Pap test results aren't clear
If your HPV test result comes back positive, don't panic. This doesn't mean that you have cancer. It means you have a type of HPV that can increase your risk of getting cancer in the future
There's currently no test to detect high-risk HPV in people with penises, so the best you can do is get the vaccine, use condoms, and get regular checkups. Remember to practice safer sex - this means using condoms - to help lower your chances of getting HPV.
What's the treatment for high-risk HPV?
There is no treatment for HPV itself, but if you have high-risk HPV, it could cause abnormal cell changes that might lead to cancer. If you have an abnormal Pap test result, you may need further tests and/or treatment including:
Colposcopy - a procedure to look more closely at the cervix to see if there are precancerous cells.
Cryotherapy - a treatment to freeze and remove precancerous cells from the cervix.
LEEP or Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure - a treatment to remove precancerous cells from the cervix with an electrical current
WHAT IS QUADRUVALENT VACCINE?
One HPV vaccine, Gardasil is recommended as a routine vaccination for males and females aged 9-26 years old. Gardasil 9 can be used in the same age group for females and for males ages 9 through 15 3 doses for vaccination at 0,1,6 months with prefilled syringe are available
WHAT IS BIVALENT VACCINE?
Immunization with Cervarix consists of 3 doses of 0.5-mL each, by intramuscular injection according to the following schedule: 0, 1, and 6 months. The preferred site of administration is the deltoid region of the upper arm. Cervarix is available in 0.5-mL single-dose vials and prefilled syringes.[
ARE Vaccines Not an HPV Cure?
The vaccines are not an HPV cure. But both HPV vaccines have been shown to provide protection for five years.
HPV vaccination doesn't mean women can skip their Pap tests. Neither vaccine protects against all the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer.
Are Pap smears still necessary for women who receive HPV vaccine?
Yes. Vaccinated women still need to see their healthcare provider for periodic cervical cancer screening. The vaccine does not provide protection against all types of HPV that cause cervical cancer, so even vaccinated women will still be at risk for some cancers from HPV.
Do women and men whose sexual orientation is same-sex need HPV vaccine?
Yes. HPV vaccine is recommended for females and males regardless of their sexual orientation.
Should transgender persons receive HPV vaccine?
Yes. Transgender persons should be vaccinated through age 26 years.
What immunocompromising conditions are an indication for a 3-dose HPV schedule?
Examples include B lymphocyte antibody deficiency, T lymphocyte complete or partial defects, HIV infection, malignant neoplasm, transplantation, autoimmune disease, or immunosuppressive therapy.
Is asplenia considered to be an indication for a 3-dose HPV schedule?
No. The recommendation for a 3-dose HPV schedule also does not apply to children 9 through 14 years with asthma, chronic granulomatous disease, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, central nervous system anatomic barrier defects (such as a cochlear implant), complement deficiency, diabetes, heart disease or sickle cell disease unless the person is receiving immunosuppressive therapy for the condition.
What can I expect after the procedure?-spotting/abdominal cramps?Will I have to stay in the hospital overnight?
Hysteroscopy is considered minor surgery and usually does not require an overnight stay in the hospital. However, in certain circumstances, when operative procedure is performed stay might be recommended.
What Is a Hysteroscopic Myomectomy?
Hysteroscopic myomectomy is a technique that can be performed only if fibroids are within or bulging into the uterine cavity (submucosal)
If a patient has been sexually active for a number of years, is it still recommended to give HPV vaccine or to complete the HPV vaccine series?
Yes. HPV vaccine should be administered to people who are already sexually active. Ideally, patients should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity; however, patients who have already been infected with one or more HPV types still be protected from other HPV types in the vaccine that have not been acquired.
Will patients who have already had genital warts benefit from receiving HPV vaccine?
A history of genital warts or clinically evident genital warts indicates previous infection with HPV, most often type 6 or 11 which cause 90% of genital warts. However, people with this history might not have been infected with both HPV 6 and 11 or with the other HPV types included in HPV vaccine. Vaccination will provide protection against infection with HPV serotypes the patient has not already acquired.
ARE Vaccines Not an HPV Cure?
The vaccines are not an HPV cure. But both HPV vaccines have been shown to provide protection for five years.HPV vaccination doesn't mean women can skip their Pap tests. Neither vaccine protects against all the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer.
WHAT IS HIV?
The HIV virus (AIDS virus) weakens the body's immune system. It is spread through sexual contact, needle sharing, or from an infected mother to baby. There may be no symptoms for years, but a blood test can tell if you have been infected. With appropriate treatment, many serious illnesses can be prevented.
WHAT ARE THE HIV Symptoms?
Flu-like symptoms 1 to 2 months after first infection, including like swollen lymph nodes, fever, and headaches.
Swollen lymph nodes
Rapid weight loss
Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
Extreme and unexplained tiredness
Prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck
Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
Sores of the mouth, anus, or genitals
Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids
Memory loss, depression, and other neurologic disorders
HOW HIV Testing IS DONE?
There are accurate tests to identify whether or not you have been infected with the HIV virus.. However, sometimes people may not test positive in the initial 6 months after infection. This time period is referred to as the "window period" in which antibodies may not have developed enough for a positive test. You can still transmit the virus to others during this time.
IS THERE A CURE?
While there is no cure for HIV, there are medications that can suppress the amount of virus multiplying inside the body. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from advancing to AIDS. Additional treatments can help prevent or fight off serious infections, if the immune system has weakened.
Hepatitis B is a virus that spreads through contact with body fluids and blood, so it can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Hepatitis B infection is also possible through sharing of needles, razors, and toothbrushes. Babies can become infected at birth from an infected mother. It's possible to go for years without symptoms of the infection.
WHAT IS Hepatitis B INFECTION Symptoms?
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)
Over time, scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver cancer can develop.
Although there is no cure, there is a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B infection.
How can it be prevented?
the best way to prevent hepatitis B is by getting the hepatitis B vaccine. The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective and is usually given as 3-4 shots over a six month period.
Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for:
Hepatitis B is a very safe vaccine.
All infants, starting with the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth.
All children and adolescents younger than 19 years old who have not been vaccinated.
People whose sex partners have hepatitis B.
Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship.
Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease.
Men who have sexual contact with other men.
People who share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment.
People who have close household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus.
Health care and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids on the job.
People with end-stage renal disease, including predialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and home dialysis patients.
Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally disabled persons.
Travelers to regions with moderate or high rates of hepatitis B.
People with chronic liver disease.
People with HIV infection.
People with diabetes 19 through 59 years old, and considered for people with diabetes 60 years or older.
Anyone who wishes to be protected from hepatitis B virus infection.
What is the vaccination schedule for For Children and Adolescents?
All children should get their first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth and complete the vaccine series by 6-18 months old. Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all babies so that they will be protected from a serious but preventable disease. Babies and young children are at much greater risk for developing a chronic infection if infected, but the vaccine can prevent this.
All children and adolescents younger than 19 years old who have not yet gotten the vaccine should also be vaccinated. "Catch-up" vaccination is recommended for children and adolescents who were never vaccinated or who did not get the entire vaccine series.
What is herpes infection?
Cold sores or "fever blisters" on the lips are a sign of herpes virus infection, usually caused by the type of herpes virus known as human herpes virus 1, or HHV-1. HHV-1 is usually not considered to be an STD; however, it can be spread through kissing or household contact. It can also spread to the genitals. There is no cure for herpes infection, but medications can reduce the severity and duration of outbreaks.
Herpes Simplex 1 (Oral Herpes) Symptoms how to recognize?
Itching of the lips or skin around the mouth
Burning near the lips or mouth area
Tingling near the lips or mouth area
A rash may form on your gums, lips, mouth or throat
Symptoms usually appear 1-3 weeks after first infection. When symptoms return, they are typically milder.
In contrast to HHV-1, most genital herpes infections are caused by a different virus known as HHV-2. It is spread through direct contact and is considered to be an STD. More than 87 percent of those infected with genital herpes are unaware of their infection due to very mild or nonexistent symptoms.
What are Herpes Simplex 2 (Genital Herpes) Symptoms?
Painful, fluid-filled blisters and crusted sores on the genital area, buttocks, thighs, or anus.
Mild tingling or shooting pain in the legs, hips, or buttocks may occur hours to days before a genital herpes outbreak.
After the first infection, less severe outbreaks are common in the first year. Outbreaks tend to decrease over time, though the infection may stay in the body indefinitely.
The infection can spread to the lips through oral contact. As with HHV-1, medications can reduce the severity of the condition, but there is no cure.
5 Chlamydia is a very common infection transmitted by sexual contact. It can cause infertility if not treated. The symptoms may not be noticed, or they may be vague and nonspecific. Some people have no symptoms at all.
What does infection with Chlamydia looks like?
Burning or itching of the genitals
Chlamydia infections can also develop in the rectum and throat.
Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics, but many people don't notice the early symptoms. It can lead to nerve damage, blindness, paralysis, and even death overtime if not treated.
What do Syphilis Symptoms present with?
A round, firm, painless sore on the genitals or anal area (often the first sign)
A rash can develop later on the soles of the feet, palms, or other parts of the body
Enlarged lymph nodes
Late-stage syphilis can cause damage to many different organ systems
What is gonorrheal infection?
Gonorrhea is an easily transmissible STD that affects both men and women. It can cause infertility in men and women when untreated. There may be no early symptoms of the infection.
Burning during urination
Vaginal or urethral discharge
Pelvic pain in women
Men may experience swelling of the testes and discharge from the penis
In some cases, the symptoms are mild and the condition is mistaken for a urinary tract infection or yeast infection.
Scabies is another disease caused by lice infestation. It is not necessarily an STD, since it can affect any area of the skin. However, it is often spread during sexual contact.
What are Scabies infection Symptoms?
Extreme itching that is worse at night.
The skin appears to have a pimple-like rash,
Both the itching and rash may be across the body or limited to the wrist, elbow, armpit, webbing between fingers, nipple, penis, waist, belt-line or buttocks.
Tiny blisters (vesicles) and scales may appear.
Tiny burrows left by the tunneling of female scabies mites may be visible on the skin.
They appear as tiny raised and crooked grayish-white or skin-colored lines.
Prescription creams can cure a scabies infestation.
Pubic lice a STD?
Pubic lice are colloquially known as "crabs." This name refers to the shape of these parasites, which is different from that of body lice. Pubic lice live in pubic hair and are spread among people during close contact. Pubic lice can be treated with over-the-counter lice-killing medications.
Visible crawling lice or eggs attached to pubic hair
WHAT IS TRICHOMONIASIS?
Trichomoniasis is a parasitic infection that is spread during sexual contact. It affects both men and women and can be cured with medications. Most affected men have no specific symptoms.
Men: minor discharge or burning with urination
Women: yellowish-green vaginal discharge with a prominent odor, itching of the vaginal area, or painful sex or urination
Symptoms can develop anywhere from 5 to 28 days after contracting the infection.
WHAT IS CHANCROID?
Chancroid is an STD that causes painful lumps in the genital area that can progress to open sores. Antibiotics can cure the infection;
One or more sores or raised bumps on the genitals. A narrow, red border surrounds the sores. The sores become filled with pus and eventually rupture into a painful open sore.
About half the time when untreated, the chancroid bacterial infection spreads to the groin's lymph glands, causing the groin to enlarge and become hard and painful.
WHAT IS LGV?
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a type of chlamydial infection. It can be cured by antibiotic treatment.Early Lymphogranuloma venereum Symptoms (3-12 Days After Exposure)
Soft red, painless sores on or near the genitals or anus
Similar sores in the throat or mouth following oral sex
Later Lymphogranuloma venereum Symptoms (2-6 Weeks After Exposure)
Open sores in the genitals
Swollen lymph nodes in the groin
Similar sores in the throat or mouth following oral sex
Soft red, painless sores on or near the genitals or anus
Anal sores and rectal discharge or bleeding if the infection was acquired through anal sex
Pain in lower back/abdomen
Pus-filled or bloody diarrhea
Fever, chills, joint pain, decreased appetite and fatigue
HOW CAN STD BE PREVENTED?
Abstinence from any sexual contact is the only absolute way to prevent getting an STD. Being in a long-term, monogamous relationship also is a good way to avoid STDs. There are also steps you can take to decrease the chance of getting an STD if you are sexually active, including:
Asking partners if they have ever had an STD
Avoiding sexual activity with a partner who has signs of an STD
Asking partners to be tested before having sex
Being aware of symptoms and signs of STDs
HOW ARE STD TREATED?
STD's caused by bacteria are generally easier to treat. Viral infections can be managed but not always cured. If you're pregnant and have an STI, prompt treatment can prevent or reduce the risk of infection of your baby.
Treatment usually consists of one of the following, depending on the infection: Antibiotics - Antibiotics, often in a single dose, can cure many sexually transmitted bacterial and parasitic infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. .Typically, you'll be treated for gonorrhea and chlamydia at the same time because the two infections often appear together.
Once you start antibiotic treatment, it's crucial to follow through.
In addition, it's important to abstain from sex until you've completed treatment and any sores have healed.
Antiviral drugs - You'll have fewer herpes recurrences if you take daily suppressive therapy with a prescription antiviral drug.
Antiviral drugs lessen the risk of infection, but it's still possible to give your partner herpes.
Antiviral drugs can keep HIV infection in check for many years. But the virus persists and can still be transmitted, though the risk is lower.
The sooner you start treatment, the more effective it is. Once you start treatment - if you take your medications exactly as directed - it's possible to lower your virus count to nearly undetectable levels.
If you've had an STI, ask your doctor how long after treatment you need to be retested. Doing so ensures that the treatment worked and that you haven't been reinfected.
WHAT IS Partner notification?
If tests show that you have an STI, your sex partners - including your current partners and any other partners you've had over the last three months to one year - need to be informed so that they can get tested and treated if infected.And since you can contract some STIs more than once, partner notification reduces your risk of getting reinfected.