Hormonal contraception for women is available as implants and injections. These methods, particularly the implant, are more effective than contraceptive pills and rings, but like other contraceptive methods, may cause side effects and do not give protection from Sexually transmitted infections.
The contraceptive implant . is a hormonal, rod-shaped device that is inserted under the skin at the inner side of the upper arm. .it has a hormone that stops ovulation and makes the fluid at the opening to the uterus (womb) thicker, stopping sperm from getting through.
The contraceptive implant lasts for three years, is close to 100 per cent effective and suits most women who cannot take synthetic oestrogens. The implant is put in by a doctor under local anaesthetic.
The contraceptive injection . is a hormonal injection.this method stops ovulation and makes the fluid at the opening to the uterus thicker, stopping sperm from getting through. The contraceptive injection is a very effective .
.INJECTION IS GIVEN AT the interval of 2 or 3 months.
Give me an information about Contraceptive intrauterine devices (IUDs)?
The IUD is a small plastic device with added copper or hormones that is put into the uterus by a doctor. It can stay in place for up to 10 years, depending on the type used. Women who want to get pregnant or are having problems can easily have the IUD taken out earlier.
Both types of IUD (copper and hormonal) are more than 99 per cent effective and work by changing the lining and environment of the uterus so sperm cannot survive. If any sperm do survive and fertilise an egg, the egg cannot stick to the wall of the uterus, which means a pregnancy cannot happen.
The hormonal IUD (Mirena0) makes periods lighter or stop altogether. It may need to be taken out because of hormonal symptoms such as headaches, breast tenderness, acne and increased appetite, but this is rare. The copper IUD tends to make periods heavier, but does not cause hormonal side effects.
The hormonal IUD slowly and continuously releases a small amount of hormones, which may make the fluid at the opening to the uterus thicker, stopping sperm from getting through. This may also prevent pregnancy by slightly change the hormones that control the menstrual cycle
what is Emergency contraception?
Emergency contraception, also known as 'the morning after pill', is a hormonal method of contraception that may stop ovulation. It can be taken to avoid getting pregnant in an emergency situation, such as after having unprotected sex, if a condom slips off or breaks during sex, or if the contraceptive pill is missed. It prevents 85 per cent of. pregnancies that would otherwise have happened
what about Contraceptive pills and vaginal rings?
Hormonal contraception for women is also available with a doctor's prescription as a pill (oral contraception) or a vaginal ring .. These methods are very effective (99.7 per cent) .Pills and vaginal rings may cause side effects and do not give protection from STIs.
The combined pill contains synthetic forms of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone. It stops ovulation and makes the fluid at the opening to the uterus thicker, stopping sperm from getting through.
There are many types of combined pills with different doses and hormones. This method is generally not recommended for women who are at risk of heart disease, such as smokers who are over 35 years of age.
The mini pill contains a synthetic form of only one hormone, progesterone. It makes the fluid at the opening to the uterus thicker, stopping sperm from getting through.
The vaginal ring has similar hormones to the combined pill and works in the same way. .
The vaginal ring releases a low dose of hormones and saves having to remember to take a pill every day. It is also as easy to put in as a tampon and, like the combined pill, is 99.7 per cent effective if used the right way.
Male and female condoms also lessen the risk of STIs. Barrier methods can be very effective if used the right way every time you have sex.
The male condom is a latex . covering that is put over the erect penis, stopping sperm from getting into the vagina. The method is 98 per cent effective if used the right way. This means using a condom every time you have sex and putting it on before there is any contact between the penis and vagina.
Male condoms are not as expensive as other methods and are available from pharmacies without a doctor's prescription.
The female condom is a loose polyurethane pouch with a flexible ring at each end that sits in the vagina, stopping sperm from getting into the uterus. It can be put in several hours before having sex and is stronger than the male latex condom but needs some practise. If the female condom is used the right way every time you have sex, it is 95 per cent effective.
The diaphragm is a soft, shallow, silicone dome that fits in the vagina. It covers the opening to the uterus, stopping sperm from getting through. The diaphragm needs to stay in place for at least six hours after having sex. If it is used, fitted and positioned the right way, the method is 94 per cent effective. Diaphragms need to be fitted by a trained doctor . The method may not give protection from STIs.
What are the Permanent methods of contraception?
Sterilisation is a permanent method of contraception that involves having a surgical procedure. Female and male sterilisation are very effective, but these methods do not give protection from STIs.
Female sterilisation blocks the fallopian tubes, stopping an egg from moving down the tube and being fertilised. The two commonly used methods are:
=> tubal ligation, known as 'having your tubes tied', where a clip is put on each tube .
=> tubal occlusion, where a small coil .
Vasectomy (male sterilisation)
Vasectomy involves cutting the tubes that carry sperm to stop sperm from moving from the testes to the penis
What are Natural methods of contraception?
Natural methods, known as natural family planning, are based on monitoring body changes during the menstrual cycle to know when a woman is most fertile. These changes are used as a guide to know when to have sex and when to avoid having sex. Methods include monitoring changes to the body's temperature and the fluid at the opening to the uterus.
The effectiveness of natural family planning varies, depending on which method or combination of methods is used. Natural family planning does not give protection from STIs. Very unpredictable and not recommended
Does a Contraceptive offers protection from STIs?
It is important to practise safer sex, as well as to prevent an unintended pregnancy. Not all methods of contraception give protection from STIs. The best way to lessen the risk of STIs is to use barriers such as male and female condoms .
If I plan to have a baby, how soon after stopping the birth control pill can I conceive?
Most women ovulate again about two weeks after stopping the pill. As soon as you ovulate again, you can get pregnant. If this happens during your first cycle off the pill, you may not have a period at all. Check a pregnancy test if you've had unprotected intercourse and your period hasn't returned.
What happens if I stop taking the birth control pill and my period doesn't come back?
If you don't have a period for several months, you may have what's known as post-pill amenorrhea. The pill prevents your body from making hormones involved in ovulation and menstruation. When you stop taking the pill, it can take some time for your body to return to normal production of these hormones.
Your period typically resumes within three months after you stop taking the pill. But some women, especially those who took the pill to regulate their menstrual cycles, may not have a period for several months.
If you don't have a period within three months, take a pregnancy test to make sure you're not pregnant and then see your doctor.
What happens if I take birth control pills while pregnant?
Don't worry if you kept taking your birth control pill because you didn't know you were pregnant. .. Once you learn that you're pregnant, stop taking the birth control pill and consult doctor
I have taken birth control pills for years and want to stop. Can I stop at any time or should I finish my current pill packet?
When you finally do stop the pill, you can expect some bleeding, which may change the rhythm of your menstrual cycle. But you can stop at any time.
Do birth control pills cause weight gain?
Many women think so. But studies have shown that the effect of the birth control pill on weight is small - if it exists at all.
Instead, you may be retaining more fluid, which can make you feel as if you've put on weight, particularly in your breasts, hips and thighs. The estrogen in birth control pills does affect fat (adipose) cells, making them larger but not more numerous.
How do birth control pills affect cancer risk?
Scientific evidence suggests using birth control pills for longer periods of time increases your risk of some cancers, such as cervical cancer and liver cancer, but the results aren't consistent.
On the flip side, the birth control pill may decrease your risk of other types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer.
But, today's pills have a much lower estrogen dose, and more recent studies show no increase in breast cancer risk if you take birth control pills. Studies also have found no link between breast cancer risk and use of birth control pills in women who have a family history of breast cancer.
Do birth control pills affect cholesterol levels?
Birth control pills can affect your cholesterol levels. .. Birth control pills with more estrogen can have a slightly beneficial overall effect on your blood lipid levels. In general, though, the changes aren't significant and don't affect your overall health.
Do birth control pills affect blood pressure?
Birth control pills may slightly increase your blood pressure. If you take birth control pills, have your blood pressure checked regularly. If you already have high blood pressure, talk with your doctor about whether you should consider another form of birth control.
Can women older than age 35 continue taking birth control pills?
If you're healthy and you don't smoke, you can continue taking birth control pills after age 35. However, birth control pills aren't recommended if you're 35 or older and you smoke because of the risk of cardiovascular disease. In that case, you need to quit smoking before you can safely continue using birth control pills.
What is permanent sterilization?
Female sterilization (also referred to as tubal ligation) includes a number of different procedures and techniques that provide permanent contraception for women. The most common techniques prevent pregnancy by disrupting the patency of the fallopian tubes. This prevents conception by blocking transport of sperm from the lower genital tract to an ovulated oocyte.IN males it is vasectomy.,which blocks vas deferens that carries sperms .
When to plan ?
Female sterilization may be performed immediately after childbirth (postpartum sterilization) or at a time unrelated to a pregnancy (interval sterilization). Most postpartum sterilization procedures are performed at time of cesarean delivery or after a vaginal delivery .Most interval sterilization procedures are performed via laparoscopy.
What are the indications?
The only indication for sterilization is the patient's desire for permanent contraception. Ultimately, the choice is made by the patient, but the decision requires thorough counseling about permanent sterility and the risk of regret.
There are no medical conditions that are strictly incompatible with laparoscopic sterilization; however, there may be factors that make women more suitable for a particular route of sterilization or other contraceptive options.
How effective is laparoscopic sterilization in preventing pregnancy?
Laparoscopic sterilization is highly effective 100%
For women who no longer want children, sterilization by laparoscopy provides a safe and convenient form of contraception. Once completed, no further steps are needed to prevent pregnancy. Tubal ligation also does not change a woman's menstrual cycle or cause menopause.
Its day care surgery
Done under general anaesthesia.
Recovery in a day
How is laparoscopic sterilization performed?
In laparoscopy, an instrument called a laparoscope is inserted through a small incision made in or near the navel. Another small incision may be made for an instrument to close off or remove the fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes can be closed off by bands or clips. They also can be cut and closed with special thread or sealed with an electric current. The laparoscope then is withdrawn. The incisions are closed with stitches or special tape.
What are the risks associated with laparoscopic sterilization?
Sterilization by laparoscopy has a low risk of complications. Its vey safe.
What should I expect after having laparoscopic sterilization?
After surgery, you will be observed for a short time to be sure that there are no problems. Most women can go home 2-4 hours after the procedure.. You may feel some discomfort or have other symptoms that last a few days
What are some alternatives to sterilization?
Long-acting reversible contraception, such as the intrauterine device or implant, last for several years. They are about as effective at preventing pregnancy as sterilization. They can be removed at any time if you want to become pregnant.
How is the Recovery from the surgery?
After surgery, patients stay in a recovery room and are observed for any possible complications. Patients are discharged same day after they receive instructions for home recovery. Patients are asked to see . for a follow-up appointment within.10 days
When to contact your .doctor?
Contact . immediately if you experience any of the following:
Persistent nausea and vomiting for more than 24 hours.
Temperature over 100 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 24 hours
Redness, swelling, drainage or bleeding around the incision
After the first day of surgery: Heavy bleeding with clots or soaking a sanitary pad within 2 hours
Am I ready for sterilization?
A woman should carefully weigh her decision to undergo sterilization by laparoscopy. Though this procedure has been successfully reversed in some women, in almost all cases it causes a permanent loss of fertility.
Women who are unsure if they still want children should choose a less permanent form of contraception, such as birth control pills, an intrauterine device (IUD), or a barrier method (such as a diaphragm). Discuss these alternatives with your .doctor
Your partner may also consider having a vasectomy, a method of male sterilization that involves severing and tying the vas deferens, a tube that transports sperm.
Any relation to Vaginal bleeding and menstruation?
Vaginal spottingup to .few days after surgery is normal. Many women do not have their next normal menstrual cycle for few weeks after surgery.
When to resume Sexual activity?
You can resume sexual activity one week after surgery.
What is tubal recanalisation?
"Tubal Reversal," also called "Tubal Sterilization Reversal," or "Tubal Ligation Reversal," or "Microsurgical Tubal Reanastomosis," is a surgical procedure that can restore fertility to women after a tubal ligation. By rejoining the separated segments of the fallopian tube, tubal reversal can give women the chance to become pregnant again.
WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF PREGNANCY AFTER REVERSAL?
Approximately 2 out of every 3 patients will become pregnant after tubal ligation reversal
Why only laparoscopic procedure for sterilization reversal?
Feasibility of laparoscopic tubal sterilization reversal is confirmed, as well as the benefits offered by laparoscopic procedures in terms of quality of life.
Evolution of techniques, skill competency and constant material improvements have allowed this type of surgical procedure to be performed by laparoscopy.
Laparoscopic Tubal Reversal is a minimally-invasive surgical procedure (laparoscopy), using small, specially-designed instruments to repair and reconnect the fallopian tubes.
.General anesthesia has been Patients are sent home the same day of surgery. The few stitches that are placed will be under the skin and will be absorbed by the body, without need for removal.
When performed by a trained laparoscopic tubal reversal surgeon, laparoscopic tubal reversal combines the success rates of micro-surgical techniques with the advantages of minimally-invasive surgery - namely faster recovery, better healing, less pain, fewer complications, and no large disfiguring scars. Laparoscopic surgery can be more expensive than an open surgery using a 2 to 3 inch incision because it requires additional surgical equipment.